New Phase Opposes Second Article Review

New Phase Opposes Second Article Review

Analyze one of the required readings from this week, but only one of
the articles from the 1970’s. There are several on feminism, from
different perspectives, as well as one on the Nixon era.

To successfully complete this essay, you will need to answer the following questions:

  • Explain the cultural relevance of the article. Who funded this magazine? What are their political biases?
  • What is the main point of the article? What is the writer’s message to his/ her readers?
  • Did the magazine make an impact on popular culture?

Your thesis for the essay should attempt to answer this question:

  • Explain the cultural relevance of the article. How did this
    particular magazine article reflect and/ or attempt to manipulate the
    cultural values of its audience? How can you prove this?

This essay should be 2-3 pages, in APA style, utilizing the college’s
library resources. Please include at least one scholarly resource as a
minimum in your essay.

Women’s Liberation in the 1970’s

Women’s Liberation is also known as “the feminist movement”, or
“feminism”. Although much of the successes of feminism took place in the
20th century, it has roots in American history that go back to the late
18th century. Some of the main issues that feminism refers to are
woman’s suffrage (the right to vote), political leadership, reproductive
rights, sexual discrimination based on employment, and sexual and
domestic violence.

The feminist movement can be examined in three “waves”, or distinct
periods of time. The first wave of feminism occurred during the 19th
century, and was focused upon the issue of unequal rights women had at
that time. Women in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s were becoming more
educated, and were determined to have the same rights as men. This
period of women’s liberation only related to white, wealthy women, as
ethnic minority women, and women without financial means had no voice at
all in society at that time.

Second Wave Feminism

Second wave feminism, which took place from the 1960’s to the
1980’s, was geared towards removing the gender equality gap through
taking on cultural and social issues such as those mentioned above. As
discussed in previous modules of this course, the idea of “containment”
applies when discussing the second wave women’s liberation movement that
began to take shape during the early 1960’s. In terms of popular music
for young women in the 1960’s, musicians such as Carole King were
writing songs from the perspective of independently minded, and sexually
liberated women. This went against the dominant culture’s attempts to
contain women, and helped to shift the cultural values and mores of
American society.

Gloria Steinem

One seminal contributor to the feminist movement is Gloria Steinem.
Since the early 1960’s, she has been a driving force in pushing forward
the prosperity of women in the United States, and internationally as
well. She began her career as a journalist in the early 60’s, and during
that time also worked as an undercover journalist for Show
magazine. Steinem worked as a Playboy Bunny in order to study how women
were treated at The Playboy Club. This was a groundbreaking look into
the popular, or dominant image of women of that time, as seen from new
perspectives. Steinem has been an author and activist since that time,
and in 2012, at age 78, she is still actively campaigning for women’s
rights.

Third Wave Feminism

Third wave feminism began in the early 1990’s, though its roots
began to take hold during the mid 1980’s. This new phase opposes second
wave feminism, which many modern feminists believe only applied to
white, middle or upper-class women. This transformation of the cultural
movement of women’s liberation in the United States was also due to the
increased presence of media images of women, which often projects gender
stereotypes.

During the 1980’s, with more women entering into the male dominated
workforce, there was a cultural need for a “de-feminization” of women,
which was reflected in a more sexually androgynous look. Annie Lennox,
of the British 80’s band The Eurythmics, started a trend by wearing
men’s suits, and wearing trademark ultra-short hair.

David Bowie was one of the first men in pop music to feminize his
look, and to look more sexually androgynous, by wearing make up and
lipstick back in the 1970’s, during his “Ziggy Stardust” period. This is
a cultural shift that deserves examination, as it was groundbreaking at
the time.

Sexual positivity is another element of third wave feminism, which
is the concept that relates to a positive view about sexuality. For
example, in regards to pornography, instead of focusing on a woman
always being sexually violated or repressed, as second wave feminism
would see it, a third wave feminist would attempt to see women involved
in the sex trade as a potential personal choice. This does not mean that
feminists are pro-pornography, but is meant to assert that value shifts
are present within modern feminist thinking. Patti Smith
is one female musical artist who became popular in the 1970’s, during
the beginnings of the punk movement. She was known for her masculine
look, and her powerful onstage presence. Women in music during the
1970’s broke with the traditional feminine image they had been expected
to portray in the past, and this also helped to change gender
stereotypes in American popular culture.

Finally, it is also important to note that third wave, or current
feminism also is focused on political leadership for women.
Particularly, women in the United States are now more politically active
than ever. Hillary Clinton, and Sarah Palin have both recently run for the White House, and more women will inevitably do the same in the future.

Analyze one of the required readings from this week, but only one of the articles from the 1970’s. There are several on feminism, from different perspectives, as well as one

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